20 January 2019

Load your Iptables Rules Automatically After Reboot as a Systemd Service

Iptables rules are not persistent. After reboot, they are flushed. So that you don't suddenly find yourself without a firewall, the rules can be automatically reloaded with a system service.

To do this, you create a Systemd Unit that automatically loads the iptables filter rules. This way your own firewall rules are permanently applied without you having to worry about them every time.


Eine Firewall mit eigenen iptables Regeln sperrt unerwünschte Verbindungen.
A firewall with its own iptables rules blocks unwanted connections to the home network.

Create a Systemd Service to load Iptables Rules - IPv4

First you created some iptables rules with a text editor. The text file is then saved to /etc/my-iptables.rules.

# example
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT

(This is only an example, not a complete firewall - a guide for a firewall with iptables can be found in the Arch Wiki)

Next, create a simple Systemd Unit with a text editor that loads the iptables rules:

Description = Apply my IPv4 Iptables Rules

ExecStart=/bin/sh -c "/sbin/iptables-restore < /etc/my-iptables.rules"

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7 February 2018

phpMyAdmin - Installation of the Current Version for a Local Web Server

* Manual Installation of the current version of phpMyAdmin from the official website under Linux. Configuration with the setup-script and the configuration wizard.


Tested with KDE neon LTS 5..8.8 - should work as well in Linux Mint 18 and Ubuntu 16.04, on which both distributions are based.

phpMyAdmin can be installed in Ubuntu, Linux Mint and KDE neon via the package manager. But if you prefer the current release, you can download a tar.gz archive from the official website and install the latest phpMyAdmin. Here a tutorial for setting up phpMyAdmin with a local web server and databases on one's own computer.

Installation of the Apache Web Server, PHP and MySQL

Installation of the MySQL server - it is requested to set a password
During installation of the MySQL server a password should be set. You need this later to login to phpMyAdmin.

For the beginning you need to install the basic packages for a local web server. This includes the Apache web server, the scripting language PHP, and the MySQL server. In short form, this is called LAMP (Linux-Apache-MySQL-PHP).

While installing, you will be asked to specify a password for the MySQL server. You may write the password down since you will need it later.

Possibly you have to specify the server as the Apache Server.

sudo apt install apache2 libapache2-mod-php7.0 php7.0 php7.0-mbstring php7.0-mysql mysql-server
sudo service apache2 start

Optional: depending on the project, addotional php modules may be...

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22 January 2018

KDE neon - Customization and Installation of Useful Apps for a Daily System

Last year in October Linux Mint announced that Linux Mint 18.3 will be the last KDE Edition. This is somewhat sad, since it is a very nice and stable distribution. Actually, there is no reason for a quick switch - Linux Mint 18.3 KDE will be provided with updates until 2021.

Anyway, with now looking into other distributions there is enough time to give them a try, and it's always interesting to see other solutions in the Linux world. I gave KDE neon a try.

Source Image: Photo: own, Logo: KDE Community License: CC BY-SA
KDE neon is a fast and lean system which ships also a User Edition.


According to the developers of KDE neon, it is not a distribution but rather a package archive. However, with a few adjustments it can be turned into a full productive system. In its default state KDE neon is sparsely equipped, and standard programs like a word or image processing program have to be installed by the user.

KDE neon is based on an Ubuntu LTS along with the newest KDE software.



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14 July 2017

Linux Mint 18 KDE - First Things to do for Usability & Security - my Favorites

Here a few favorite settings for a newly installed Linux Mint 18 KDE. I divided the list in usability, security, and applications & adjustments. It makes no claim of being complete:).

First thing to do after installation is to install updates, and along with it configure the Update Manager. Under Edit → Preferences make sure that you check "Always select and trust security updates".


The Linux MInt desktop with System Settings and Widgets
The Linux Mint 18 KDE desktop with System Settings and Widgets. The latter is addressable over the Plasma toolbox button in the upper left corner.


Desktops with different wallpapers

Especially Linux Mint with the KDE flavor can be customized to a high degree. In LM 17 I had several virtual desktops with different background images. In KDE Plasma 5 this does not function any longer. This is greatly missed by many users.

But there exists a workaround: click the "Plasma toolbox" button in the upper left corner, choose "Activities", and create a bunch of activities (instead of virtual desktops). Then add a wallpaper to each activity. With a right click on the panel choose Task Manager Settings → General, and uncheck "Show only tasks from the current activity". Now it's almost like working with different virtual desktops in LM 17.



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24 May 2017

Custom CSS styles with CKEditor and Wysiwyg Module in Drupal 7

The CSS Zebra
The CSS Zebra

In Drupal 7 you can easily define custom CSS styles which you can choose within the editor. It is a small, useful feature that makes writing an article easy and saves a lot of time. Here a tutorial with the Wysiwyg Module and the CKEditor libraries. It lets you apply your CSS classes of your style sheet to choose from the drop-down menu in the CKEditor.

Installation of the modules

If you have not already done so, download the Wysiwyg module, and the modules IMCE and IMCE Wysiwyg bridge for the image integration. Unpack the modules in the /sites/all/modules folder. Then download the CKEditor JavaScript package - the standard package will do - and unzip it to the folder /sites/all/libraries. Make sure that the version of the CKEditor is compatible with the Wysiwyg module. Install the modules.

CKEditor profile

Under Configuration → Content authoring → Wysiwyg profiles create a new profile. As an example I will create the profile "Full HTML".

CKEditor:create a profile with the Wysiwyg module in Drupal 7
When selecing the CKEditor on their download site make sure that the version of the CKEditor is compatible with the Wysiwyg module. Here a "Full HTML" profile is created, so there are no restrictiones.


Under "Editor" select the CKEditor. Create the profile and add desired buttons and plugins. Under the tab "CSS" the classes and elements can be defined.

If the styles of the custom style sheet shall be shown within the editor, choose "Use theme CSS" in "CSS Editor".

Some CSS elements, like h1-h6 are already in place. Other CSS classes and HTML elements can be added.

Custom CSS...

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